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         首页 >> 争鸣
        从民谣中聆听新中国70年之巨变
        2019年09月25日 11:43 来源:光明日报 作者:马立新 原雪云 字号

        内容摘要:民谣即民间歌谣、谣谚,俗称“顺口溜”。民谣在我国源远流长,是一种广泛流行于民间的特殊的语言形式。

        关键词:

        作者简介:

          民谣即民间歌谣、谣谚,俗称“顺口溜”。民谣在我国源远流长,是一种广泛流行于民间的特殊的语言形式。它或比,或兴,或赋,既风趣幽默,又朗朗上口,是中华民族审美智慧的结晶;它或赞美良善,或针砭时弊,既是社情民意的真实写照,又是时代变迁的生动缩影。

          新中国成立70年来,大到国家建设,小到百姓生活,都发生了翻天覆地的变化。下面就让我们从浩如烟海的当代民谣中,撷取些许英华,聆听中华民族从站起来到富起来再到强起来的铿锵心声。

          站起来

          “出了苦海走平阳,眼前日子甜又香;旧时农民矮三寸,如今农民高万丈”

          1949年10月1日,新中国成立,亿万人民沉浸在翻身得解放、奴隶变主人的无比喜悦中。

          “出了苦海走平阳,眼前日子甜又香;旧时农民矮三寸,如今农民高万丈”,这首民谣所表达的正是刚刚站起来的中国人民的喜悦心情。兴奋之余,新生的主人们不能不时时反思是谁让他们无条件地在一夜之间就由土地的奴隶变成了土地的主人,于是一种对党、对领袖、对人民子弟兵的感恩之情、敬仰之情油然而生?!案吒呱缴瞎液斓?,救苦救难毛泽东,他的功劳大得很,开天辟地头一人”,是献给开国领袖的;“天上无云难下雨,地下无土难生根,农民没有共产党,挣断骨头难翻身”,是献给党的;“佤族、拉祜、解放军,就像芭蕉一条根,佤族、拉祜是叶子,解放军是芭蕉心”则是唱给人民子弟兵的。这就是刚刚站起来的中国人民的最真实的情愫。

          自然,以上民谣也难掩翻身群众作为新社会主人的骄傲和自豪之情,他们正是带着这种炽热的情感立即投身到迅即展开的热火朝天的新中国建设中。

          你看土改后的农民劳动时多么欢快:“太阳一出红彤彤,我牵牛儿出栏棚,土地还家?;凰?,共产党来了日子红”。你瞧解放初期的共产党干部多么清正廉洁和贴近群众:“下乡背干粮,干活光脊梁;早上挑满缸,晚睡硬板床”?!笆凸と艘簧?,地球也要抖三抖”,这是油田开发大会战的强音;“蓝天做帐地当床,黑河边上扎营房,三块石头架口锅,咸菜盐巴当干粮”,这是“两弹一星”开拓者们的感人身影;“在万里蓝天放哨,在白云深处安家,在月亮背后潜伏,在银河边上设卡,留心过往的阴云,警惕暗藏的乌鸦,飞贼胆敢来侵犯,一炮叫它头开花”,这是人民解放军的威武英姿;“点点红,片片红,面面红,个个跃进争英雄”,这是崇尚英雄、争做先锋的时代之声。

          从上述耳熟能详、脍炙人口的民谣中,我们依稀又看到了那个激情燃烧的年代,仿佛又回到了那战天斗地的大寨田现场和那“一万年太久,只争朝夕”的建设工地。这些民谣都是新中国历史上永不磨灭的记忆,也是刚刚迈入新社会的中华儿女最纯真的感情。

          富起来

          “吃细粮,住瓦房,穿着涤纶的确良,还有存款在银行”

          1978年12月18日,党的十一届三中全会为神州大地吹来改革开放的春风。一个解放思想、实事求是,以经济建设为中心的新时期到来了。追随着新时期的脚步,感应着改革开放的脉搏,当代民谣唱响了全民致富奔小康的主旋律。

          众所周知,农村的改革是从安徽凤阳小岗村的“大包干”开始的。在时任安徽省委书记万里的强力推动下,小岗村的“大包干”经验一夜之间在安徽全境遍地推广,因此“要吃米,找万里”这样的民谣不胫而走,也吹响了农村改革的号角?!傲偈惫?,三十元,不如去种责任田;这主任,那书记,回家也管自留地”,形象描绘出包产到户在全国各地农村全面展开的生动局面。

          农村包产到户的改革,效果显著,受到群众的热烈拥护?!霸鹑沃?,是个宝,分田到户就是好,各显神通甩手干,粮食产量步步高”“一人包产全家干,村头不见闲人站”“老包进了村,人人笑盈盈,你紧我也紧,一亩一千斤”等民谣写出了农村承包制的巨大威力。

          经过农村包产到户的改革,中国农民几千年来第一次解决了“吃饱”的问题,并渐渐富裕起来?!俺韵噶?,住瓦房,穿着涤纶的确良,还有存款在银行”“大囤尖,小囤流,腰里别着十块头,骑着摩托到处游”是对改革后的新农民形象的精准刻画。其后,科技致富成为农村发展的重头戏,于是像“新三农政策暖咱心,要抓住创新好机遇,引进良种和温室,大胆运用高科技”这样的科技民谣流行起来。

          后来取消了农业税,农村的变化更大了。于是,“种田不缴税,上学不缴费,盘古开天地,这是头一回”“国家惠农政策好,皇粮国税都取消,种粮购机有补贴,农民种地热情高”这样的新民谣,又开始在农村和农民中广泛传播。

          在城市的改革中,深圳等几个经济特区的创办,无疑最具标志性,与此相关的民谣也蔚为大观,构成一道亮丽的风景?!笆奔渚褪墙鹎?,效率就是生命”这一振聋发聩的口号就是率先从深圳流传起来的。在深圳模式、深圳速度、深圳经验的带动下,我国各个领域的改革开放全面展开,出现了“脚踏突突突,手拿大哥大,天南地北跑,满口标准话”的社会景观。邓小平南方讲话之后,更是掀起了一股声势浩大的“干部群众斗志昂,工业强县战鼓响,天南海北招商忙,项目推进势头强,资金投入增后劲,园区建设窗口亮,城乡统筹树形象,争先创优荡回肠”的经济发展热潮。

          在改革开放政策的推动下,中国人民的生活真正富了起来。吃的方面,“当今百姓爱吃怪,生活胃口一再改,农家大棚种野菜,商城专把活鱼卖,头蹄下水上桌来,活物价格涨起来,咸菜佐餐受青睐,应季小菜火起来”。穿的方面,“新半年,旧半年,过了当年不再穿”。住的方面,“60年代住草房,70年代建瓦房,80年代加外廊,90年代盖楼房,这阵时兴建洋房”。出行方面,“乡镇里面条件好,出门坐车有‘蓝鸟’;村里条件也不差,外出坐上‘桑塔纳’;个体大户也不孬,私家轿车开着跑;当今百姓也不错,出门就把班车坐”,这些民谣正是富起来的中国人民生活的生动写照。

          强起来

          “天天传捷报,日日有创新,制造变创造,敢把拇指伸”

          党的十八大以来,中国昂首迈入中国特色社会主义新时代。在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的引领下,我国踏上全面深化改革的新征程,中华儿女正在为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而砥砺前行。一大批彰显新时代精神的民谣应运而生。

          新时代,正风反腐取得了巨大成就,“反腐力度,读遍二十四史都找不到”。我们从民谣中就能感受到反腐工作是何等深得人心:“打虎打蝇手不软,职位再高也敢管;押上法庭去审判,人民拍手齐称赞;我愿中央追穷寇,铲草除根整个透!”

          扶贫是过去几年党和国家工作的重头戏,几年间数千万人成功脱贫,创造了人类历史的奇迹。先看我们的扶贫政策:“扶贫工作要攻坚,精准政策细宣传。三二零八是底线,九种农户不能选?!痹倏次颐堑姆銎陡刹浚骸跋缫奥?,田地旁,帮扶队员不辞忙;填档卡,细思量,屈膝老妪如亲娘;东家奔,西家访,不落一个送芳香;白昼短,趁夜长,无愧百姓无愧党?!弊詈罂纯葱率贝男屡┐澹骸罢醯闷鹎ň鸵德纷庸悖?,学得到艺(有专门的就业培训机构),养得起老(养老保障体系健全),看得起?。ㄅ┐逡搅票U系轿唬?,上得起学(孩子有书读),睡得好觉(社会治安好),走得好路(户户通硬化路),吃得上水(村村通自来水),做得了主(民主管理)?!?/font>

          科技创新是新时代高质量发展的一大特征。民谣“北京中关村,俱是品蟹人,天天传捷报,日日有创新,制造变创造,敢把拇指伸,科技兴国梦,创新是领军”,是对“蛟龙深潜”“嫦娥探月”“量子密钥”“高铁出?!薄?G领先”等一系列重大科技创新成果的高度概括;“零丁洋上笑声欢,十载攻坚夙梦圆,卧海蛟龙镇狂浪,澳珠港与九州连”是对以港珠澳大桥为代表的一大批重大建设工程的赞誉;而在网络上广为流传的民谣“一带一路智慧篇,英明决策世界连,共筑千年大计梦,胆识气魄史无前”,则是民间对我国“一带一路”倡议的支持与肯定。

          新时代的民谣,除了关于国家重大成就的反映,也不乏时代生活的写照?!巴仙坛潜榈鼗?,淘宝拍拍顶呱呱,京东商城也不错,国美苏宁跟着做”描述了近年来如火如荼的网购,“时代青年谋挣钱,共享单车街连连,单车代步挺方便,省时省力公里半”,说的是共享单车给百姓生活带来的便利。

          民谣是对历史的另一种记录。新中国成立70年来,大量的民谣或长或短,或雅或俗,无不生动地展示着神州大地波澜壮阔的沧桑巨变,演绎着中华儿女精彩缤纷的筑梦历程。

          民谣永流传,神州已巨变!

         

          (作者系山东师范大学教授、博士生导师)

        作者简介

        姓名:马立新 原雪云 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:贾伟)
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