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         首页 >> 文联
        科幻影视表现人工智能的回顾与反思
        2019年09月30日 10:48 来源:《常州大学学报:社会科学版》2019年第1期 作者:王宁 崔扬舟 字号
        关键词:科幻影视;人工智能;科技发展;科技伦理

        内容摘要:科幻影视一般都基于科技发展而展开大胆想象及设计,其中非常常见的就是对人工智能的表现。

        关键词:科幻影视;人工智能;科技发展;科技伦理

        作者简介:

            作者简介:王宁,常州大学周有光语言文化学院副教授,常州大学中国文化海外传播研究所所长,苏州大学传媒学院博士研究生;崔扬舟,常州大学周有光语言文化学院助教。

          关键词:科幻影视;人工智能;科技发展;科技伦理

          内容提要:科幻影视一般都基于科技发展而展开大胆想象及设计,其中非常常见的就是对人工智能的表现。通过回顾人工智能在科幻影视中的兴起、发展及原因,可以很好领略人工智能元素进入影视促进影视形象变迁及蓬勃发展的奇幻景象。无论就科技文化反思,还是哲学思想解读,科幻影视所关注的人类与人工智能多种关系及其可能性发展,都具有非?;奈幕庖搴褪稚钤兜纳缁嵋庖?。

          标题注释:江苏省社会科学基金自筹经费项目“符号学视野下常州影像传播与城市记忆研究”(17TQD003);江苏高校哲学社会科学研究基金项目“‘他者’纪录片讲述中国故事研究”(2018SJA1767);江苏省教育科学“十三五”规划青年专项课题“新时代提升高校语言教师文化传播能力的路径研究”(C-c/2018/01/06);常州大学思想政治工作研究会课题一般项目“从‘新时期’到‘新时代’:人工智能场域下的文化生产与传播”(18SZGZ15);周有光语言文化学术研究一般项目“青果巷及周有光语言文化相关影像史料的收集、整理与研究”(ZYG001706);周有光语言文化学院教学建设项目“基于‘课程思政’的英语演讲与辩论教学探索与实践”(ZYG2018JX003)。

         

          科幻一词(Science Fiction)最早由英国作家威廉·威尔逊(William Wilson)在1851年提出;1916年,美国人雨果·根斯巴克(Huge Gernsback)将之简写为“科幻(Sci-Fi)”,1926年他创办了世界上第一份科幻杂志《惊奇故事》,开创了科幻文学类型,科幻文学领域最高奖“雨果奖”便是以他的名字命名?!翱苹谩币淮适贾沼成渥耪角芭分拮什准豆ひ蹈锩桃约?0世纪美国政治意识形态[1]??苹闷缑?,是基于科学基础并加以幻想呈现的影视创作。无论是基于物理学、生物学、天文学等自然科学,表现新技术、新发明给人类社会带来的正面或负面影响的“硬科幻”,如太空史诗科幻片(《星际迷航》)、灾难冒险科幻片(《彗星撞地球》)、动作英雄科幻片(《终结者》系列)等,还是情节和题材更具有哲学、心理学、社会学和政治学倾向的“软科幻”,如《沙丘》《北京折叠》等,“人工智能”元素总是科幻片推动情节发展的叙事动力主线或暗线,既凝注了对当下科学现实的观照,也嵌入对人性本质的深思和暗喻。皎洁明月,浩瀚星空,不免引人遐想:月球的背面究竟藏了什么?《月球》中宇航员身体被任意、无限克隆以承担月球上繁重单调的开采能源任务,那是否人的自我意识也可以随之被克隆或任意改写?须弥芥子,宇宙的尽头在哪里?尽头之外是什么,是无穷大吗?《银河系漫游指南》中的超级电脑“深思”给出了生命、宇宙以及任何事情的终极答案:42。白驹过隙,逝者如斯,进入虫洞穿越时空,改变过去可行吗?窥探未来又被允许吗?《回到未来》系列以轻松幽默的风格告诉观众未来是掌握在自己手中的;《蝴蝶效应》中主人公每一次看似好意甚至自我牺牲地扭转过去,只带来真实生活的逐步崩坏。相对论、航天技术、克隆技术、黑洞说……科技的飞速发展都在拓展人类的想象边界,以科技为基石的想象力又在一定程度上预测或启发新技术、新方法的诞生。

          有关人工智能在科幻影视中的表现与发展,目前的研究主要集中在某一类别或方向。如李尼[2]、张晓敏[3]致力于思考赛博格与人类的关系,候军[4]、崔文一等[5]从美学或哲学角度解读太空史诗科幻影片中的人工智能,倪祥保[6]则致力于“科幻”“奇幻”的命名阐释及人工智能的起源发展研究等。笔者期望能够对人工智能在科幻影视中呈现的复杂性和多样性,对其背后的存在意义和对生命体的想象做出较为系统全面的回顾梳理和分析探讨,以期引发更多关于科幻影视中人工智能发展的想象和探讨。

          一、人工智能元素在科幻影视中的兴起

          在科学话语体系中,人工智能最早也是比较流行的定义是由计算机科学家约翰·麦卡锡(John McCarthy)在1956年达特茅斯会议上提出的,即“人工智能就是要让机器的行为看起来就像是人所表现出的智能一样”[7]。如人工智能算法、智能机器人、智能芯片以及网络大空间搜索和大数据等前沿性研究方向等。在影视话语体系中,人工智能元素是以科学知识为据进行大胆预测或幻想,以期借助想象力的驰骋进入哲学层面去探讨时间、宇宙、生命、人的自我意识等。也就是说,科幻影视中的人工智能必须兼有人工化、智能化、高科技化以及想象化、超科技化的特点,使幻想之虚立足于科学之实。因此,诸如描画天降强者的外星生命和突破科学物理规律限制的魔法世界的玄幻片和魔幻片之类,不在本文的研究范围之内。

          人工智能在科幻影视中的兴起与现实科技的发展密不可分,现实科技发展自然催生人工智能在科幻影视中的兴起。1950年,英国数学家、逻辑学家图灵发表论文《计算机器与智能》,提出了判定机器是否具有智能的试验方法,即著名的“图灵测试”。该论文指出,如果第三者无法辨别人类与人工智能机器反应的差别,则可以论断该机器具备人工智能。这是人工智能领域的开创性奠基,图灵也因此被誉为“人工智能之父”。1956年的达特茅斯会议,被公认是人工智能发展历史上的一次重要会议。在这个会议上,马文·闵斯基(Marvin Minsky,人工智能与认知学专家)、克劳德·香农(Claude Shannon,信息论的创始人)、艾伦·纽厄尔(Allen Newell,计算机科学家)、赫伯特·西蒙(Herbert Simon,诺贝尔经济学奖得主)等科学家在美国汉诺斯小镇的达特茅斯学院,探讨通过符号化编程实现机器人模拟人类学习及其他功能等这个当时看起来不切实际的主题。2014年,智能聊天程序“尤金·古斯特曼”成功地让人类相信它是一个13岁的乌克兰小男孩,成为有史以来首台通过图灵测试的超级计算机,这是人工智能发展的里程碑事件。2016年起,AlphaGo相继打败了人类顶尖水平职业围棋棋手李世石、柯洁等,成为第一个战胜世界围棋冠军的智能机器人。

        作者简介

        姓名:王宁 崔扬舟 工作单位:常州大学中国文化海外传播研究所

        职称:所长

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:刘思彤)
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