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         首页 >> 文联
        新时代工匠精神的伦理传承与类型探索 ——评电影《大路朝天》
        2019年09月30日 10:44 来源:《中国文艺评论》2019年第3期 作者:郭克俭 字号
        关键词:《大路朝天》;工匠精神;类型化;浪漫现实主义

        内容摘要:因执导电影《十八洞村》(2017)而为人熟知的女导演苗月。

        关键词:《大路朝天》;工匠精神;类型化;浪漫现实主义

        作者简介:

            作者简介:峻冰,四川大学。

            关键词:《大路朝天》;工匠精神;类型化;浪漫现实主义

          内容提要:因执导电影《十八洞村》(2017)而为人熟知的女导演苗月,新近执导的影片《大路朝天》(2018)可谓继《战狼2》《红海行动》《我不是药神》后又一部较为成功的坚守艺术尺度的类型化电影,它是对“父与子/师傅与徒弟”序列中新时代工匠精神伦理传承的思考。影片本身突破边界、跨类融合的有益探索以及浪漫现实主义的诗意表达,都使该片具有感人至深的审美魅力。

         

          英国电影理论家欧纳斯特·林格伦在《论电影艺术》一书中认为:电影不仅能成为“为了激动人的感情而激动人的感情,也就是说仅仅为了使人愉快而激动人的感情”的“娱乐”手段;成为“不是为了立即满足人们的感情,而是要把人们的感情带进现实生活中去起作用”的“宣传”手段;而且可以成为“只能表现艺术创作者个人的经历和观点”的“真正的艺术”。①显然,林格伦依据电影承载的主导功能的不同较为正确地说明了:电影可以区分为娱乐电影(娱乐片,以娱乐功能为主导)、宣教电影(宣教片,以宣传教育功能为主导)和艺术电影(艺术片,以审美功能为主导)三类。

          之于国产电影,宣教电影即主旋律电影(主旋律片):它全部或部分涵盖重大革命历史题材电影、战争电影和警匪片、传记片等样式或类型。在本质层面上,具有创新品格、道德底线的娱乐电影的创作也应被视为真正的艺术创造;而主要承继娱乐电影传统的类型(喜剧片、惊险片、警匪片、科幻片、传记片等)无疑也是如此。美国传播学者和电影历史学家弗兰克·毕佛认为:电影评论家和电影历史学家应将“类型”与艺术质量较高、十分重视“生产标准”的影片列在一起给予评价,因为“每类电影在电影史上和文化史上都起过各自不同的重要作用”;类型“是由经济制度产生的”;它们“从内容和风格上都为电影事业的发展开拓了前景”②。

          毋庸讳言,近两年大获成功的军事题材主旋律电影《战狼2》《红海行动》以有艺术尺度的类型化的有益探索突破了历史,它们并非昙花一现的创作经验、美学规律、接受心理及其所折射出的大众文化对今后的主旋律电影创作产生了较大影响。显而易见,不久前引起观影热潮的道德伦理电影《我不是药神》是此路径;电影《大路朝天》,可谓又一部较为成功的坚守艺术尺度的类型化主旋律电影——对工业题材深情注目的它必将为主流意识形态以及精英文化、大众文化所瞩目。

          一、新时代工匠精神的伦理传承

          《大路朝天》主要思考了工人与工匠精神的传承问题,尤其是传统工匠精神与科技创新的关系问题。片中踏实朴素的老石匠曾庆民(巴登西绕饰)训斥一天到晚不想当工人只想当干部的儿子曾馒头(杜天甫饰)时所说的话——“你娃晓不晓得啥子叫工人,工人就是做工的人,就是老老实实、本本分分、认认真真用自己的双手做活路的人!”——无疑是对工匠精神(当然是指传统的工匠精神)的极好诠释。站在雨中训过儿子的曾石匠让其跪地拜师的场景既具有强烈的视觉冲击力,也具有感人至深的审美力量,其中所溢出的踏实认真、精益求精、执着奋进、默默奉献、无限忠诚的文化意蕴让共和国“工人”和“工匠精神”的概念显得鲜活、饱满,很接地气。

          其实,不只是曾石匠,影片的主人公、退休的筑路工唐金全(李保田饰)也曾告诉过几十年奋战在路桥建设第一线的儿子类似的话——作为多个重大路桥项目的总指挥,唐真红(郭晓峰饰)更加强调拼命实干、优质高效、科技引领及个人成就的快速达成(这既令人肯定,也令人反思,因为科学技术也需要求真、求精、求是精神的引导,也需要有生活、有情感、有个性的人来实实在在地完成)?!洞舐烦臁返男鹗陆峁雇成懔怂淖椤案赣胱?师傅与徒弟”同为路桥工人的关系线索:(1)唐金全(父一辈,路桥一代)与唐真红(子一辈,路桥二代);(2)卢通达(父一辈,路桥一代)、卢兴旺(子一辈,路桥二代)与卢桥亮(孙一辈,路桥三代);(3)老陶(父一辈,路桥一代)与黑娃(子一辈,路桥二代);(4)曾庆民(父一辈,路桥一代)与曾馒头(子一辈,路桥二代)。他们之间杂糅着伦理意义上的血缘关系和师徒关系。也就是说,父对子的亲情传承同时也演绎着师傅对徒弟的文化传承。当然,“工人”的自我认同与“传统工匠精神”的文化浸润主导着这种不时闪现苦干、实干身影的传承链条的绝大方面。

          事实上,《大路朝天》所暗示或传达的并不仅止于传统工匠精神的传承问题,导演思考的触角进一步延伸到科技创新的层面——传统工匠精神也需要现代科技的加持;要求优质与高效的平衡,科技创新必不可少。细读本文,不难发现,父传子,子传孙,师傅传徒弟的代际延续,既需要有对丰富的实践经验所结晶的代代相传的“绣花功夫”的持守,也需要适时融入现代科技的竞争、协作、标准、高效的工业美学理念——唐真红对速度的追求、对成就的执着,对传统产业工人必须进行技术培训和鼓励技术创新的要求明显地体现了这一点。一直思考自己所学的科技理论知识如何与实践工作“链接”的西南交通大学的毕业生张弛(孙艺杨饰)与对新建成的宏伟的大桥莫名兴奋的路桥集团新进女大学生江雪花(杨洁饰)的植入,明显表征着“互联网+”与新的时代语境下科技创新元素对传统产业的融入将成为必需。片中诸如“链接=(路桥的)连接”“轮换=更新(升级换代)”“速度=高效”“打洞=探索(创新)”等崭新工业理念的反复陈述或言说,也呼唤着既秉持踏实认真的传统工匠精神,又掌握现代科技的新型产业技术工人的快速涌现。

          其实,无论之于筑路架桥,还是其他什么产业,劳动的美无疑既指有一腔热血,靠体力汗水实干、硬干的踏实认真精神,更应该指智慧施工、绿色施工,以科技为矛,创新为盾的新时代潮流。习近平总书记2015年1月21日在云南调研考察时说:“在推动产业优化升级上下功夫,在提高创新能力上下功夫,在加快基础设施建设上下功夫,在深化改革开放上下功夫,扎扎实实走出一条创新驱动发展的路子来?!雹弁?月26日,习近平总书记在浙江杭州高新区视察时又说:“企业持续发展之基、市场制胜之道在于创新?!雹芟远准?,《大路朝天》对“踏实认真+科技创新”的新时代工匠精神的确认契合了主流意识形态,而且也明确传达出:这种新时代工匠精神应该在企业工作中得到真正的落实和传承。

        作者简介

        姓名:郭克俭 工作单位:浙江师范大学施光南音乐学院

        职称:院长、教授

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:刘思彤)
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