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         首页 >> 社科基金 >> 基金基地 >> 基地动态
        中国红十字会起源探析
        2019年09月16日 09:11 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:傅亮 字号

        内容摘要:

        关键词:

        作者简介:

          国际红十字会源自瑞士的亨利·杜南(Henry Dunant)倡议成立的伤兵救护组织。在欧美的影响下,中国也逐渐产生了自己的红十字会,并于1904年3月10日正式成立。关于红十字会的起源与中国化的问题,一部分学者认为中国红十字会的成立是中西慈善文化相互融合的结果,但也有学者对此持异议。因此,对于红十字会这个舶来品如何实现中国化的转型,有必要对不同观点进行梳理。

          周秋光很早就对近代中国红十字会史进行研究,他认为中国红十字会的成立,经历了组织的酝酿、创设红十字会、成立红十字会组织的过程,并认为中国红十字会的成立“是内因与外因互动的结果,而内因尤为重要。中国自古以来便以积德行善为优良传统,存在着接受红十字会的思想与社会基础”“中国红十字会的成立,是中西慈善文化相互交融的结果”。与此类似,闵杰指出:“在红十字会传入之前,中国已经具有相当普及的社会救济组织,保持着历史悠久的慈善事业的传统,与红十字会的人道主义精神有相通之处?!?/font>

          杨智芳与周秋光进一步探究了中国红十字会的起源问题,将中国红十字会的起源上溯到东三省红十字普济善会,并正式提出“嫁接理论”,即红十字会虽系“舶来品”,但中国红十字会却是中国本土的慈善组织“嫁接”红十字会逐渐成长的结果。

          从20世纪末开始,池子华就开始将红十字会史作为研究主题,出版了一系列研究著作及资料集。他将中国红十字会的起源上溯到救济善会,并认为这是国人“移花接木”创办红十字会的最初尝试,中国红十字会的成立经历了一个启蒙、尝试、创立的过程。作为“舶来品”的红十字会“在中国实现发展,并非一帆风顺。它需要一个‘启蒙’过程,只有这样,才能实现‘中国化’或‘本土化’”。池子华与周秋光对于红十字会中国化的过程分歧不大,基本都认为红十字会的成立是中西慈善文化融合的成果,只是前者将这个启蒙—尝试—创立的过程梳理得更为清晰。

          郭进萍认为,江南地区拥有源远流长的慈善文化传统,为红十字会向中国的移植提供了丰富的资源?!案叨然嵬ǖ囊滴窕疃驼餍呕莆焓只嵩泄峁┝嗣裰谌贤墓勰罨?。在近代西学的全方位冲击下,江南慈善文化通过融通与转型实现了时代更生,催生了晚清义赈,为红十字运动在中国的兴起奠定了实践基础,江南的善人群体则为红十字会在中国的创建提供了坚实的人力资本?!?/font>

          朱浒的观点与周秋光、池子华两位有所区别。他对红十字会本土化的路径问题进行了深入探讨,认为“红十字会之所以能够与中国慈善传统相结合,主要是通过当时重要的救荒机制即义赈来实现的,而不仅仅是依靠相关知识的传播”?!吧虾M蚬焓只岬牡⒎且桓龅ハ虻南咝允录?,而是蕴含着不同线索的发展脉络”,他强调说:“红十字会在中国实现本土化的这个过程,并不能简单归结为中西慈善文化的相通性,而是有一条相当具体的依赖路径,即与标志着中国救荒事业重大发展的晚清义赈所提供的社会机制有着密切联系?!彼衔?,“红十字会得以在中国找到最初的实际落足点,在很大程度上依靠的是作为‘小传统’的地方性社会资源,而不是依赖于与作为‘大传统’的中国慈善文化之前达成的某种契合”。

          张建俅也认为,中国红十字会的成立大致经历了启蒙—尝试—创立等阶段,但他认为1912年才是中国红十字会正式成立的关键,理由有三:一是政府立案;二是国际承认;三是制度确立。

          笔者赞同朱浒的观点,即红十字会在中国实现本土化的路径依赖是晚清义赈提供的社会机制。但红十字会在中国实现本土化的过程,是与国人对红十字会的适用范围的理解与尝试密切联系在一起的。笔者与刘玉斌的研究认为,红十字会实现中国化的过程蕴含着四个方面的内容:从战地救护到救护难民的变通、灾害救济的纳入、红十字中国化的国际认可、《中国红十字会章程》的建章立制。

          国际红十字运动发端于战地救护,中国出现带有红十字性质的组织也是在“庚子事变”这场战事当中。但不管是救济善会还是此后日俄战争期间的上海万国红十字会,这二者在事实上都没有开展救护伤兵的活动,而是变通为救护难民,直到辛亥革命期间,中国红十字会才真正开始将救护伤兵和难民统一起来。而中国红十字会在民国之后常办的自然灾害救济,虽发端于上海万国红十字会在日俄战争之后的赈济东北难民,但此前的灾害救济属临时性质,而且带有明显的近代义赈色彩?!吨泄焓只嵴鲁獭访魅饭娑ê焓只崞绞庇姘焖翟趾?,这就为中国红十字会将灾害救济纳入红十字会的职能提供了依据。此后,救济自然灾害成为中国红十字会的一项重要活动。

          在1912年的第九届红十字国际大会上,中国红十字会关于“平时兼办各项善举”以及内战中的红十字救护实践的意见得到各国代表的赞同,表明红十字会的中国化获得了国际红十字会组织的认可。1912年中国红十字会统一大会通过的《中国红十字会章程》,明确规定了中国红十字会的宗旨:“甲,在战时应遵守本国海陆军部定章及临时军司令官命令,协助医队救护病者、伤者。乙,在平时应筹募款项,设立医院,造就医学人才,置办医务材料,并赈济水旱偏灾,防护疫疠及其他各项危害?!闭獗曛咀藕焓只峄就瓿闪吮就粱墓?。

         

         ?。ū疚南怠八罩荽笱?018—2019名城名校融合发展战略项目”阶段性成果)

         ?。ㄗ髡叩ノ唬核罩荽笱缁嵫г豪废担?/font>

        作者简介

        姓名:傅亮 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:齐泽垚)
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