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         首页 >> 社科基金 >> 基金管理 >> 成果发布
        构建混编型教师培训工作坊
        2019年09月16日 08:49 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:程岭 字号

        内容摘要:

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          工作坊模式肇端于20世纪初德国格罗皮乌斯创立的包豪斯学院。2014年,教育部发布《网络研修与校本研修整合培训实施指南》之后,迅速成为我国各级各类教师培训活动的一大特色。典型的教师工作坊由坊主、辅导教师、观察教师和被观察教师四种角色组成,其理论基础是社会学家勒温所创建的团体动力学,其优点是有利于知识交互和同侪互助。但是,经过国内多个研究机构对百余工作坊中教师的知识共享行为进行跟踪观察和交流访谈后发现,现有工作坊的成员交流普遍较少,交互层次也比较低;对工作坊用户行为投入进行研究后也发现,坊员的整体投入度一般。深入分析发现,同质性是影响深度交流的主要原因:坊内学员均是同一学科的教师,许多坊员来自同一所学校,相互之间比较熟悉,相互缺乏神秘感、敬畏感和吸引力,坊员思维模式相近,能力差别不明显,缺乏相互学习的兴趣和内驱力。因此,混编型工作坊模式应成为教师培训的重要选择,其在实践中已取得良好成效。

          混编型工作坊的基本组织特色是差异化。第一,坊员组成差异化。工作坊由2—3个不同学科的教师组成,由2—3类不同能力层次的教师组成,他们来自不同的学校,男女比例基本均衡,由1名较有威信的教师任坊主,组成一个由8—15人组成的混编团队。第二,发展目标差异化。坊员的能力基础不同,发展目标也各不相同,有的致力于成为骨干教师,有的目标指向于专家教师。第三,坊员特长差异化。坊员的专长也不尽相同,有的擅长教学设计,有的擅长论文写作,还有的优于课堂教学、专业阅读、活动组织、课题研究、课程开发、模式创新、培优补差、评价测量、领导管理等。如此,不同学科、不同水平、不同目标、不同学校、不同特长的教师聚合在一起,既是同学,又相互请益,形成了一个具有多样化、互补性、共生性,同时又有组织、有目标、有纪律的生态群落。

          混编型工作坊在教师培训上具有多重优势。第一,差异发展推动了同侪互助。差异化的发展目标形成了错位发展的格局,有利于减小相互竞争,也即弱化了相互之间的斥力,增强了相互之间的引力。在这种交流平台上,年轻教师能够借机拜师学艺,获得发展策略与资源。同时,这种老少结合、男女搭配的团队气氛往往比较轻松和谐,有经验的教师在这种充满尊重、压力较小的气氛中往往容易放下矜持的包袱,愿意为年轻人传授经验。在热烈气氛的感染下,年轻教师也愿意分担责任,承担技术支持、信息收集、沟通协调及后勤服务等工作。第二,学科差异推动了知识交互。学科交叉与融合是当前教育改革与发展的着力点。常规工作坊培训往往是把同学科的教师分在一组,不利于学科间的交流与学习,而混合制能够较好地改变这种局面。众所周知,不仅文理科之间存在较大差异,而且大文大理之内也存有明显差别。教师在参训过程中,着力学习的并非是学科的知识,而是理念、思路、方法、模式和思想。这些理念和思想,本学科教师间大同小异,而不同学科之间往往差别明显,容易碰撞出创新的火花。因此,南京师范大学附属中学曾在教师进修上作出重要规定,规定进修教师首先要修完其他两门学科的学分,成绩合格之后,再学习本学科的内容。第三,多元差异有利于深度合作。同科教师尤其是同一学校的教师之间往往存在竞争,因而有时会不愿意深度交流。这也是常规工作坊效果不佳的重要原因。而混编制打破了这种博弈格局。同时,这种差异定位、错位经营的格局又能通过优势互补、资源共享和相互引介建立起良好的深度合作关系。

          混编制工作坊的效果来自于立体化的学习方式。首先,要为坊员提供有目标导向的交流机会。合法的时空场域,有助于教师敞开心扉,与同行进行交流。同时也要为坊员提供合适的交流话题,也即话题要有内容且与工作相关,有目标且有时间限制,符合“最近发展区”的原则。其次,要为坊员提供先行组织的探讨话题?!跋刃凶橹摺笔前滤毡炊岢龅囊桓鼍涓拍?,是指先于学习任务本身呈现的一种引导性材料。先行组织者在教师培训中是话题的来源,是建构生成的支架,是培训者抛下的“锚”,其发挥的是“抛砖引玉”的作用。因此,在坊员交流之前,最好要给他们开设与讨论话题相关的讲座,或者提供相关的学习材料,或者提供引发话题的现实案例,以避免坊员在讨论中空谈、奢谈、浅谈或虚谈。再次,要为坊员提供可自主发挥的展示环节。每一位坊员都不是空着脑袋进入培训场所的,他们既是学习者,也是有经验的教师。一些性格外向的教师在学习的过程中比较喜欢展示自我、表达思想。为这些教师提供机会,能够产生良好的“鲶鱼效应”,活跃班级气氛,生成新的培训话题,产生意想不到的效果。最后,要为坊员提供多维交织的学习方式。教师培训需要有主题,有主题才会有实效。如何让主题真正有实效?需要让其动起来、活起来,立体化地展示在学员面前。如何立体化地展示?需要多维设计、多面观照、多彩呈现。除了上面所述的学习与交流相结合,还要做到理论与现场相结合,也即让学员深入有特色的实践基地,在实践中获得启发,获得发现;展示与评价相结合,也即让各学员相互评价,刺激学员在讲台上充分发挥,并对问题进行深度挖掘;学习与反思相结合,也即让学员以工作坊为单位提交学习心得、学习反思。如此能够让他们及时总结所学知识,相互发现对方优点,互动完善所学心得,团结协作提高成效。

         

         ?。ū疚南?018年度江苏省现代教育技术研究立项课题“基于现代信息技术的教师培训共享空间构建研究”(2018-R-59745)阶段性成果)

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        作者简介

        姓名:程岭 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:齐泽垚)
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