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         首页 >> 社会发展
        陆益龙:乡村振兴要做好农民工工作
        2019年09月26日 09:44 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:陆益龙 字号

        内容摘要:

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        作者简介:

          农民工问题是具有中国特色的社会问题,这一问题与特定的社会体制、城乡关系、工农关系有着不可分割的联系。按照国家统计局的界定,农民工是指户籍仍在农村,在本地从事非农产业或外出从业6个月及以上的劳动者。农民工的户籍身份显现出中国户籍制度及相关社会体制的特点,他们的从业实践则又体现出改革开放以来城乡之间、工农之间关系的转变。 

          国家统计局对农民工的调查监测结果显示,2018年全国共有2.88亿农民工,其中外出打工的有1.7亿,本地就业的约1.1亿。这样一个庞大的社会群体之于中国社会而言,可以说具有着极其重要的意义。无论对于乡村社会来说,还是对于城市社会来说,农民工群体都发挥着较为特殊的功能。如今,在推进和实施乡村振兴战略的过程中,也必须重视农民工群体的重要作用,做好农民工工作。 

          农民工是农村脱贫和乡村振兴的关键 

          在流行的观点看来,随着大量农民工的外出,导致农村的“空心化”或凋敝衰落,而且人口的净流出使得农村社会经济发展缺乏内生动力。然而事实上,农民工流动是社会经济结构转型与体制共同作用的结果,对待农民工的“大流动”,不宜仅看到其消极社会影响的一面,还应该看到积极的一面。从微观层面看,农民工的流动实际上是乡村劳动力适应社会变迁的一种有效策略;从宏观层面看,农民工群体的流动调和了城市与乡村、工业化与“三农”发展的张力,形成了更具有弹性的城乡关系、工农关系。综合起来看,农民工不是让乡村变得衰败,恰恰相反,他们让乡村在现代化、市场化的大环境中获得一些新的机会及新的可能。 

          当前,农村的扶贫攻坚已进入关键阶段。各地为了实现到2020年农村全部脱贫和全面建成小康社会的战略目标,正积极地采取各种各样的精准扶贫措施。针对农村扶贫攻坚的重点是要让深度连片贫困地区脱贫,目前所采取的易地扶贫搬迁、对口帮扶、产业扶贫、项目扶贫等一系列精准扶贫措施,对于在短期内实现脱贫目标可能起到一定的显著效果。如果从长远角度看,解决连片贫困地区的脱贫问题,从根本上还是要为当地居民获得更多市场机会创造更加有利的环境。在市场化、城镇化的大背景下,外出打工是农村劳动力获得新机会、新发展的有效途径之一。对于农村家庭来说,只要有劳动力外出打工,也就能够摆脱贫困。因为根据农民工监测结果显示,农民工的平均月工资能达到3200元左右。一个四口之家如有一人打工,即可保障家庭人均纯收入明显超过贫困线水平。由此看来,农民工在农村脱贫过程中发挥着关键性的作用。 

          同样,在推进和实施新时代的乡村振兴战略过程中,也需要正视乡村劳动力流动的这一现实,应该看到农民工流动的积极意义,进一步发挥农民工对乡村振兴的重要作用。如果仅从表象来推理,农民工外出打工似乎影响乡村的繁荣与发展。其实不然,农民工的社会角色具有双重性,尽管他们到城镇打工、居住和生活,既对城市的建设和城市社会运行发挥重要功能,同时他们又是农村社会的成员,对农村的经济和建设仍会有巨大的、积极的贡献。乡村的振兴,国家建设力量的支持作用虽很重要,但归根到底还是需要依靠乡村社会主体的力量,也就是要通过乡村居民来振兴乡村。农民工群体虽是一种流动的群体,但仍然是乡村社会的主体构成和中坚力量。随着农民工得到越来越充分、越来越均衡的发展,他们将会给乡村社会发展带来一些新的活力和机遇。特别是那些积蓄一定经济实力的返乡农民工,对活跃乡村市场和振兴乡村产业将会发挥突出作用。 

          加强农民工的就业促进工作 

          对农民工的认识,曾经有“盲流”的观点,现在有农村“空心化”的观点,这些观点的本质其实就是消极地看待农民工流动。然而现实表明,农民工向农业、农村之外流动既是客观事实,也是一种大趋势,而且农民工的非农就业实际上让农村达到“曲线发展”的效果,因为农民工通过收入水平的提高,大大改变了农村的面貌。我们在看到平常时间里农村空落化景象的同时,也能看到村庄里一幢幢新建的楼房以及春节期间大量的小汽车,这些象征着农村经济实力通过农民工的流动与发展得以提升。 

          对农民工的流动及其非农业就业,需要持积极的支持态度,政府应加强农民工的就业促进工作。对于乡村振兴而言,并不是让农村劳动力留下来就能实现振兴,只有让劳动力充分就业才是发展的硬道理。因此,就当前乡村社会经济的实际状况而言,促进和保障农民工在非农领域顺利就业,是实现农村脱贫和乡村振兴的一条切实可行的、过渡性的路径。 

          为促进农民工更好地就业,政府需加强农民工就业信息平台建设,加大对农民工就业服务和促进工作的公共投入。在农村基层,一方面可以利用“互联网+”等现代信息技术手段,通过农民工就业信息平台上报和汇总农民工的就业需求信息;另一方面也可通过信息平台为农民提供工作岗位需求信息。此外,在乡村治理实践中,地方政府还可根据劳动力市场的需求信息,有针对性地组织农民工进行职业技能培训,有组织地开展劳务输出。 

          为创造有利于农民工就业的环境,针对农民工就业的特点,还需要在相应政策方面提供更具弹性的政策支持,如就业岗位和用工形式的一些政策性限制可针对农民工岗位作适当调整。由于农民工就业通常主要在城镇非农领域,城市管理及就业政策需要协调和考虑农民工的就业需求。在就业促进政策安排上,可专门针对农民工岗位提供一些优待措施,激励用工单位使用农民工,扩大农民工的就业渠道和就业机会。 

          在农民工就业促进工作方面,政策还可为农民工的创业提供激励和相应的支持。从长远角度看,实现乡村振兴的产业兴旺目标,需要依靠产业融合而不仅仅是农业现代化。在这个意义上,引导和激励乡村劳动力在农业外的就业和创业就显得格外重要。只有促进乡村非农产业的融合发展,大量农民工获得更充分发展,才能从根本上解决农民的增收难问题。对于农民工在乡村创业行为,需要在资金、信息、技术以及基础设施建设等方面加大政策性扶持和激励,激发农民工的创造活力,开拓农民工非农就业的新渠道。 

          有效治理拖欠农民工工资问题 

          拖欠工资问题是众多农民工通常遇到的突出问题,导致这一问题产生的原因复杂多样,既有结构性成因,也有制度性原因,还有个例特殊因素的影响。为解决拖欠农民工工资问题,已经有多种法规政策和监管措施出台,问题虽有所缓解,但仍然存在着,而且是困扰农民工发展的不和谐、不稳定因素。 

          从基层矛盾纠纷监测所反映的情况看,拖欠农民工工资是引发社会矛盾冲突的主要诱因之一。每年春节前,会出现较多农民工因不能及时拿到劳动报酬而进行上访活动,有些地方甚至会因这一问题而发生群体性事件。拖欠农民工工资不是小事,而是可能影响和谐稳定的社会风险源。由此看来,有效地治理拖欠农民工工资问题是做好农民工工作的重要而又艰巨的任务。 

          由于农民工就业具有非正式性、多样性和复杂性,因而拖欠农民工工资问题也复杂多样,很难找到唯一的根源。要有效地治理这一问题,仅靠源头治理的方法还不够,还需要采取综合治理的措施,既要针对一些拖欠工资问题的成因采取有效防范措施,也要根据现实情况解决及时支付问题,让农民工的经济损失得到挽回,将治标与治本结合起来。 

          在治理拖欠农民工工资问题方面,政府还需发挥主导作用,在社会中构建起共治机制。一方面不断完善劳动力市场和用工方面的法律法规,加大执法和监管的力度;另一方面,也可引导农民工、工会、社会组织和执法机关共同参与到这一问题的防范和解决之中,逐步培育和形成守法有序、公平合理的农民工就业环境。此外,针对拖欠农民工工资的秩序风险,还可引入新型农村保险机制,通过政策性保险,来保障拖欠的农民工工资得到及时赔付。 

          在新时代,农民工群体的存在将是一个大趋势,实施乡村振兴战略,需要正视这一现实,积极看待农民工的流动,做好农民工的服务、支持和保障工作,有效治理农民工问题,充分发挥农民工的独特作用。 

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        作者简介

        姓名:陆益龙 工作单位:中国人民大学社会学理论与方法中心

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:赛音)
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