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         首页 >> 考古学 >> 遗产?;?/a>

        内容摘要:

        关键词:

        作者简介:

          “冥冥之中,父亲之前的工作和知识积累,好像都是为了‘发现’明中都准备的?!被叵肫鸶盖淄踅S⒌蹦暧朊髦卸嫉南嘤?王红感慨道。1369年朱元璋诏建中都城,整整600年后的1969年,时年49岁的王剑英来到凤阳教育部五七干校劳动,意外地发现了明中都遗址。因为明清史和历史地理知识的底子,多年考察研究后,王剑英写出《明中都城考》,奠定了此后明中都?;ぱ芯康募崾祷?。

          在王剑英“发现”明中都50年后,2019年8月20日,第二十届明史国际学术研讨会暨朱元璋与明中都国际学术研讨会在明中都皇故城国家考古遗址公园旁召开,来自国内外的150多名专家学者齐聚凤阳,共同推动明史研究和明中都研究。23年前,第六届明史大会也曾在凤阳召开,那时王剑英先生的《明中都》一书正式出版不久;曾参加过那次明史大会的专家如今多已是耄耋之年,再次来到凤阳,不禁感叹变化之大。

          就在五年前,明中都皇城遗址,还是一片“脏乱的旧城”。虽然早在1982年明中都就被列为全国重点文物?;さノ?也有考古工作者进行零星的考古发掘,但对于明中都遗址的建筑形制、具体面貌仍不是特别清晰。明中都真正迎来转机是在2013年,那一年明中都皇故城国家考古遗址公园项目获国家文物局立项,安徽省文物考古研究所据此制定《凤阳明中都皇故城考古工作计划》,2014年明中都遗址正式启动了系统性的考古勘探和大规模发掘。

          明中都出土精美基座

          持续考古发掘 揭开中都原貌

          “2014年至2017年,总考古勘探面积达210万平方米,发掘面积7600平方米,配合清理遗址面积约10000平方米?!钡H蚊髦卸伎脊畔钅扛涸鹑说耐踔?见证了这几年明中都的变化。王志说:“王剑英先生在《明中都遗址考察报告》中曾16次提到,需要以后勘探发掘来进行求证?!泵髦卸嫉娜姹;ず脱芯?全面系统地考古发掘是极为重要的。

          据王志介绍,2014年以来的考古工作主要分考古勘探和考古发掘两个部分:

          三年的勘探,明中都禁垣以内,总体的地层堆积特征、水系走向和主体建筑的分布已基本探明,宫城内总体建筑布局显现。宫城内的主体建筑分布,前朝区宫殿及门的位置和基本结构,与王剑英先生的调查颇为一致;午门南发现的位于御道两侧的若干建筑组群,与记载的中书省、大都督府、御史台、太社稷等建筑基本对应。另外,在宫城外西南侧发现大批窑址,应是修建明中都时的工程遗存,丰富了对明中都营建过程的认识。

          考古发掘也获取了丰富的资料,对各类建筑的具体形制都取得了一系列新的认知。

          发掘揭示,明中都皇城中心宫殿的台基形制并非表面所见的“中”字形,虽然未完全揭露,但判断其形状应是较元中都中心宫殿基址更为接近的“工”字形。

          罢建明中都时,午门内已对雨路墁砖,东华门、承天门内则处于尚未墁砖的状态;罢建时禁垣城以内的水系应已完成,但路网尚未完全形成;从西华门城台顶部清理可以看出,对城台顶部收顶施工时掩埋了磷墩,应是罢建后放弃在城台顶部建楼的表现;外金水河的走向,外金水桥的位置、数量和结构得以明确,发掘揭示出外金水河上为七座桥基;确定了承天门等建筑的形制、结构,发现承天门城台为“3+2”的城门布局,这在我国古代都城的城门布局上还是首次发现。

          通过发掘确定了明中都“先宫殿后城墙,先宫墙后禁垣”的营建时序;同时,发掘将铭文砖和夯土形态纳入时空框架之内观察,发现了砖文内容和夯土类型的变化规律,窥探到工程管理的不断成熟化、规范化趋势。

          发掘还了解到了明中都建设中的相关建筑技术,如土作、砖作和石作技术,尤其是不同形态夯土的发现,为从考古学角度构建营建时序起到了关键作用。在对发掘出土的琉璃瓦的检测中,发现了锌,使这一技术的发现从明代中晚期提前到了明初。外金水桥被发现使用了堆土筑券法,是这一筑桥方式发现的首个实例;另外桥基券石的卯棒结合部还发现多塞有铁片或灌注铁水。

          通过考古勘探发掘,逐渐摸清了明中都的规制。明中都皇城的规模与很多建筑的规制和豪华程度超过北京故宫,面积为84万平方米,比北京故宫还大12万平方米。通过出土文物可见,明中都部分宫殿的须弥座、大殿柱础的精美程度也远超北京故宫,北京故宫的很多建制是以明中都为原形。

          观众查看明中都午门墙上的石雕

          褪去历史尘埃 重铸中都新颜

          考古勘探和发掘,推动了明中都的?;ぱ芯?。2017年12月,明中都皇故城遗址公园成了安徽省目前唯一一个挂牌的国家考古遗址公园。这其中,安徽省委省政府、省文物局、滁州市政府、凤阳县政府也做了大量工作

          安徽省文物局局长蔡小莉说:“明中都作为国家挂牌的考古遗址公园,得到了省委省政府的高度重视,将其列入了政府重点工作;安徽省文物局、省考古所配合有关单位研究制定了明中都整体?;す婊?正确指导遗址公园的建设;此外,在管理机制方面,建立了完整的管理体系,确保遗址公园的建设、管理和运营;另外,这些年在国家文物局的指导下,围绕国家考古遗址公园的建设,推进了一系列配套项目和工程的建设?!?/font>

          凤阳县委书记徐广友介绍:凤阳县委、县政府高度重视历史文化的传承?;?明确提出“一座中都城、凤阳城市魂”理念,及时编制了2010-2030凤阳城市总体性规划,将文物?;す婊氤鞘凶芄婧隙?深入推进历史文化名城建设。凤阳县政府使出了“洪荒之力”, 自2016年11月至2017年5月投入13.8亿元,完成了1300户、20个工厂、10个养殖场、4所学校的征迁工作,调整了5740亩土地利用规划,经过多年的艰辛努力,遗址?;せ竦昧嗣飨越?取得了显著成效!

          2018年6月8日,明中都考古工作站正式揭牌,安徽省文物考古研究所与故宫考古部建立合作,联合对明中都遗址进行考古发掘;凤阳的其他配套项目建设也在积极推进,650年后的明中都,活起来了!

        作者简介

        姓名:刘远富 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:齐泽垚)
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