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         首页 >> 国际关系学 >> 本网首发
        德国缘何反对美国对华加征关税
        2019年08月28日 09:27 来源:中国社会科学网 作者:王扬 字号

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            近日,美国政府突然宣布,从9月1日起将对中国输入美国的3000亿美元产品加征10%的关税(目前已有2500亿美元的中国产品被加征25%的关税)。此举发生在中美第十二轮经贸高级磋商刚刚结束并同意八月继续会谈的大背景下,美国这一违背契约精神的单边主义行为不仅引起了本国国内企业界的愤怒和抗议,更招致国际上许多国家的不满和反对。德国工商联合会代表德国政府发声:美国政府此轮对华加征关税“令人担忧”,将损害包括德方在内的多方利益。此前德国工商联合会也曾公开表示:“美国和中国之间的经贸摩擦将损害全球经济,最终将只有输家”。作为美国在欧洲和北约最重要的盟友德国,此次为什么要指责美国而声援中国呢?笔者认为主要有以下三个原因:

          德方对美国对华加征关税的批评,首先是表达自己对特朗普政府的不满。自去年3月开始,美国挥起的“关税大棒”连欧洲也没放过,这让包括德国在内的欧洲盟友遭受了巨大经济损失。作为欧洲最大经济体的德国,2018年以来经济形势格外低迷。据8月14日发布的数据显示,德国今年第二季度GDP环比萎缩了0.1%,而在过去四个季度里,有两个季度都出现了经济萎缩。与此同时,7月份德国商业气候指数也创造了6年以来的最低值——95.7分,这是不到一年里的第十次下跌。作为一个严重依赖外部贸易的国家,默克尔不得不承认,造成目前德国经济外贸下滑、货物和服务出口额急转直下,很大程度上是由美国与欧盟之间的贸易摩擦所致。德国智库伊弗经济研究所的报告认为,贸易冲突加剧正对全球经济产生重大负面影响。专家预计全球贸易增速将明显减缓,个人消费趋弱,投资活动放缓和利率下降成为市场普遍预期。直到本月初,美国与欧盟的贸易谈判还在进行着,特朗普明确表示不会放弃向欧盟加征汽车及零部件关税。德国作为全球最大的汽车出口国,特朗普的汽车关税简直就是向德国直接施压,德国人当然要不平而鸣。根据柏林Atlantik-Brücke研究所去年年底进行的一项民意调查显示,近85%的德国人对美德关系有负面或非常消极的看法。

          在经济领域之外的诸多问题上,美德双方也是各持己见,互不相让。最让特朗普诟病的是他认为德国军费开支在国民生产总值中所占比例过低,连北约成员国设定2%的目标都达不到。去年,默克尔再次当选德国总理后访问白宫,特朗普开口的第一句话便是“安吉拉,你欠我1万亿美元”。这个数字是过去14年中德国实际防务开支与承诺防务开支之间的差值。让特朗普耿耿于怀的还有“北溪—2”项目,这条由俄罗斯经波罗的海海底到德国的天然气管道,可绕过乌克兰把俄罗斯的天然气输送到德国,再通过德国输送到欧洲其它国家。管道建成之后,德国和其它欧洲国家将不会再花高价购买美国天然气,气急败坏的特朗普称德国对俄罗斯的天然气依赖“会让德国成为俄罗斯的人质”,并多次威胁德国要制裁此项目。此外,今年三月,特朗普在以色列总理内塔尼亚胡的见证下签署公告,正式承认以色列对戈兰高地的主权。德国、比利时、英国、法国、波兰等五个安理会欧盟成员除在联合国的公开会议上反对美国这一做法,还在会后专门发表联合声明,严厉谴责特朗普的这一行为。再加上2018年5月,美国宣布单方面退出2015年签署的伊朗核问题全面协议,随后重启对伊朗的制裁。本月初,为了在对伊朗的局势中寻找到突破口,美国以为波斯湾护航为幌子,打出了组建“国际联盟”的旗号,反复要求盟国派军舰到波斯湾,德国外交部对美国泼冷水,称不会参与美国提议和计划的海上任务,还表示希望缓和与伊朗的关系。以上种种导致特朗普对德国颇有微词,美国认为德国作为北约强国,对北大西洋公约组织的贡献不足。由此可见,作为美国在欧洲的重要盟友,德国对其虽不至于反水,但已表现出多方面的不满。

          其次,德方对美国对华加征关税的批评,是对战略合作伙伴中国的声援。德国与中国的合作一直走在欧盟其它国家的前端并且对德国经济发展起到了巨大的正向影响,中国连续三年保持德国全球最大贸易伙伴。最近几年,中德两国高层频繁互访,密切往来,默克尔总理在任期间11次访华,成为访华最多的西方国家领导人。除了正常的国事互访,中德领导人还尽可能利用在国际舞台活动的时机,进行单独交流。无论是2018年布宜诺斯艾利斯还是今年六月大阪,在G20峰会上,习主席都在繁复的行程中安排了与默克尔会晤,旨在巩固中德战略合作伙伴关系,共商中德合作发展大计。此外,中德政府签署《中德合作行动纲要:共塑创新》,德国两次派高级代表积极参加“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛,举办促进两国友好合作的“德中同行”活动等等,都是对中德全方位战略合作伙伴关系的支持及巩固??梢运?,中德两国现在正处于发展的“黄金时代”,在中国朋友遭遇美国不公平对待时说句公道话,对德国自己也是不无裨益的。

          德方对美国对华加征关税的批评,最终是对世界政治民主化和经济自由化的呼吁。自17世纪启蒙运动在欧洲兴起以来,自由、平等和民主的思想便深深根植于日耳曼人民心中。德国宪法《基本法》规定的五项基本政治原则中,居于首位的便是“民主”。正如德国国歌中所唱的那样:“统一、主权和自由,是我们千秋万代的誓言”??梢运?,德国是当今世界上民主化程度最高的国家之一。此外,默克尔总理虽是女性,却具有博大胸襟,怀揣日耳曼民族复兴的宏图大志,这点从她对待难民的态度就能看出。在欧洲经济衰退的大背景下德国经济相对繁荣,具有相当强大的国防实力,相当独立的外交政策,相当权重的国际话语权,这样的德国怎么能总是仰美国的鼻息呢?!多年来,默克尔政府以欧洲一体化、跨大西洋伙伴关系和积极和平外交政策为三大主导思想和核心原则,她最终想建立的是一个由德国带领下的统一而强大的欧洲,积极参与欧元区一体化改革、公开支持马克龙组建欧洲联军的主张,甚至在不久前美国邀请德国参与其倡议的波斯湾“护航联盟”队伍时,德方认为护航行动应该由欧洲发起。因此,特朗普奉行的单边主义与盟友的国际理念背道而驰。

          当前全球化大背景下,世界各国家、各地区、各组织在政治、经济、文化等领域的交流合作,达到了前所未有的广度和深度。正如习主席在G20大阪峰会上所说,“放眼世界,各国早已休戚相关、命运相连”。对世界未来发展图景,习主席做出了如此勾画:“我们要立足共同利益,着眼长远发展,致力于实现世界持久和平繁荣、各国人民安居乐业”。这一大势也是世界上立足于和平与发展的所有国家的共识。因此,美国如果继续置世界经济发展规律、市场发展自由、WTO规则于不顾,一意实施单边主义、贸易?;?、经济封锁,只会带来以下两种结果:一是招致更多国家和组织的不满与谴责,最终落到骑虎难下、孤家寡人的地步;二是本国经济出现动荡甚至衰退,这从美国不断上涨的债务数字上已可窥一二。无论如何,作为世界经济重要一极的美国如果执意妄为,都会对世界经济运行和全球产业格局产生不可估量的巨大风险和负面影响。无怪乎习主席在大阪含沙射影地向特朗普政府喊话,希望其“避免因一时短视犯下不可挽回的历史性错误”。

         

         ?。ㄗ髡呶肥Ψ洞笱夤镅г航彩Γ?/font>

         

          

          

          

          

          

          

        作者简介

        姓名:王扬 工作单位:曲阜师范大学外国语学院

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:陈茜)
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