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         首页 >> 各地 >> 人文西南 >> 资讯交流
        蒙顶山上海棠开 从一普通村庄变迁看四川退耕还林还草20年
        2019年09月17日 09:50 来源:四川日报 作者:王成栋 字号

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          9月12日,蒙顶山深处,雅安市名山区中峰乡海棠村挤满了车辆?!翱茨阋囊恢植枰?,几十、几百一斤都有?!奔肝煌獾赜慰痛丈侠?,56岁的?;凡士继干?。?;凡什唤雎舨枰?,还把自家的房子改成了农家乐,一年的收入在7万元上下。

          作为蒙顶山茶核心产地,秋茶正集中上市,还要举办首届桂花节。茶和桂花是海棠村的两大致富树,是退耕还林带来的新产业。

          1999年9月,四川启动退耕还林还草试点,至今正好20年。全省已有263.6万贫困人口通过退耕还林还草脱贫,海棠村就是具有代表性的案例。

          记者 王成栋

          A

          回望20年前的难题

          海棠村毁林开荒恶性循环,种地只够糊口,水土流失严重

          20年前,?;凡始业娜兜馗展缓?,一家人的日??坷习榕茉耸淅次?。

          63岁的村民侯清良说,他从记事起就上山开荒,头年冬春放倒树木,晾晒一年,搬走木材后,再一把火烧光杂草和树根,清理掉土层里的石块。但新开的荒地,产量往往只能维持个两三年。雨水多的年份还必须休耕,因为每逢雨季,在一半土地坡度大于15度的海棠村,田里的“泥汤汤”就会不断溢出,水土流失严重。

          当地海拔700多米,阴雨多,光照不足,即便大量施肥,水稻亩产量也不高。2002年前后,全村人均年收入不过1500元。村民只得向更高的山上开垦,村里仅存下500余亩山林了。

          “愈垦愈穷,愈穷愈垦。坡度在大于15度-25度这个区间时,耕地没有办法稳定保持肥力?!笔∩缈圃貉芯吭崩铌芍樯?,我省经历了60余年的高烈度垦殖阶段,至上世纪末,盆周大量陡坡荒山荒坡变成农田,短时间内一定程度上增加了四川农业产出,但在上世纪90年代前后,生态集中爆发和经济恶果。

          在海棠村,1998年的夏季洪水,冲走了村里的牛,部分人家的房子被山洪撕成了碎片。原省林业厅厅长曹正其记得,1998年长江流域发生特大洪水,四川是主要泥沙来源地,坡耕地水土流失是主要因素之一。

          1999年,全川共有坡度大于25度的耕地1300余万亩,平均产粮食仅346斤,与同年全省平均亩产690斤的水平相比差一大截。

          退耕,已经成为当年破解山区农村生态恶化和经济困境的必然选择。

          B

          打开这些年的“旧账”

          退耕还林,给补贴保温饱,退耕户算账后在陡坡耕地种下树苗

          3年后试点结束,2002年,四川在全省范围内大规模启动退耕还林还草行动,海棠村也在其中,全村2000亩耕地有725亩划入还林区。

          当时的稻谷收购价只有0.41元/斤,种粮几乎没有利润。但退耕令下达后,部分村民却不愿意了。侯清良说,部分农户抵触情绪较大:不种粮食,以后吃啥?

          “想要退得下,就得保证退耕户温饱不出问题?!笔×忠岛筒菰指毖彩釉?、时任省林业厅造林绿化处副处长的王玉琳说,当时,国家的补贴政策是每亩每年300斤稻谷,“根据实时价格,也可以换成玉米等杂粮,基本温饱不会出问题?!?/font>

          “当时国家农业增产势头旺盛,库存比较多,价格比较稳定?!痹伊忠稻滞烁炖细刹砍鹈魃浇樯?,世纪之交,我国粮食连年大丰收,1998、1999两年累计建设的粮库仓容就达700亿斤。

          每亩300斤的补贴标准是根据各退耕区域产量核定的?!罢庑┑胤揭荒昴恫簿?00多斤粮食,再加一点秋季作物,扣除成本,最多就挣个一两百斤稻谷的钱?!毖虐彩辛忠稻滞诵莞刹坷畛ち?,算清经济账后,退耕户们对补贴额度比较满意,“毕竟,收益比种地还要好?!?/font>

          2004年前后,根据中央指示,四川决定采取货币补贴方式,按照当年稻谷收购价0.7元/斤,将粮食折合成现金发放。同时,鉴于各地造林基本完成,再次加码补贴力度——每亩每年给予20元的护林经费。

          2002年秋季,海棠村的村民背着铁锹和树苗,走进了各自的陡坡耕地,照着林业技术人员的指导,一点一点地把树苗种下。第二年汛期,山沟里的“泥汤汤”就大为减少。等到秋季,原国家林业局和原省林业厅等部门派出的验收组到山上走了一圈,确认还林面积和还林成果后,现场兑现了补贴。

          省林业和草原局统计,20年来,我省累计兑现各类还林护林补贴437亿元,受惠农民2200余万人。

          C

          绿水青山就是金山银山

          退耕还林催生了蒙顶山茶产业,补贴停了,“饭碗”端得却更牢了

          补贴终止后,该如何维持生活?退耕户们的担心,不是没有理由。

          补贴有终止期限。2002年全面启动退耕还林时,就明确将还林区划分成经济林和生态林??悸鞘髂旧ぶ芷诔さ纫蛩?,设置相对较长的补贴时限:经济林补贴10年,生态林补贴16年,均分两轮执行。四川省退耕还林还草工程管理中心主任张洪明解释,在当时的环境下,扭转长江上游水土流失恶化是第一要务。1999年开始试点、2002年大规模执行的第一轮退耕还林,更为强调生态效益。2014年新一轮退耕还林启动,就全面取消经济林和生态林比例限制。

          不少村民悄悄地在林子里套种玉米、蔬菜等。但复耕的打算很快就被林业部门勒令禁止?!叭绻肿永锍げ怀觥弊印?,就算树栽活了,效果也不会很好?!笔×忠岛筒菰指本殖ぬ拼袼?,退耕还林不只是一项生态建设工程,也是退耕区产业转型,必须切实增加农户的收入,才能确保退耕还林“稳得住”。

          如何让林子里长出“票子”?目光落在了茶叶上。

          省林科院副院长慕长龙介绍,早在上世纪六十年代,四川农业大学等高??蒲械ノ痪驮诤L拇甯浇纳缴辖ㄆ鹆瞬柚只?,培育了多个适宜当地气候的树种。蒙顶山一带为酸性土壤,阴雨多、常年无霜,适合茶叶生长。

          到2005年,海棠村退耕地全部种上了茶树。2007年茶叶开始上市。农户除了还林护林补贴,有了长期稳定收入来源。

          2010年前后,海棠村剩余土地也种上了茶叶,茶叶变成了主打产业,茶园亩产值上万元,纯利润6000元上下。

          名山区林业局绿化股股长沈芝虎表示,某种意义上,正是退耕还林催生了蒙顶山茶产业。当地已完成的11.09万亩还林地全部转变成了茶园,助推蒙顶山茶从4.7万亩猛增至35.2万亩,成为该区农业产业的支柱。

          2017年,退耕第二轮补贴就要到期。村干部早就召集大伙商议:补贴彻底停掉后,还有什么增收办法?

          这一次,村民选择了桂花树。2015年,海棠村茶园全部套种了桂花。政府部门牵线搭桥,利用茶叶、桂花和山势打造观光景区。

          2017年,桂花绽放,景区对外开放,海棠村有了新产业。退耕户们纷纷开起了农家乐、餐馆和商铺,收入再次攀升。去年,村里人均纯收入突破2.5万元,成了远近闻名的富裕村和小康村。

          “其实,被改变的不止是海棠村。从全省层面来看,退耕还林还草也是富民工程、惠民工程?!碧拼窠樯?,自1999年启动试点以来,全省累计完成退耕还林还草近4000万亩,四川森林覆盖率因此提升四个百分点以上。对比1998年,全川每年输入长江泥沙量减少近一半?;沽值亟ǔ稍?000万亩特色林、农产业基地,依托这些特色基地陆续培育出森林康养、生态旅游等新业态。

        作者简介

        姓名:王成栋 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:张彦)
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