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         首页 >> 各地 >> 人文西北 >> 区域特色
        秦封泥:跨越秦汉的封缄“密钥”
        2019年09月27日 15:53 来源:陕西日报 作者:李向红 华艺婕 字号
        关键词:艺术博物馆;封泥;丞相;右丞相印;中国书法

        内容摘要:“右丞相印”封泥何全喜现场向参观者演示封泥封缄的过程。坛罐包裹与封泥使用情况示意图。秦封泥颜色品相实录图。秦封泥墨拓款式效果图。秦封泥出土地。本组照片为翻拍照片它,是古代信函文书封缄的实物遗存,是秦人用泥土铸就的一部美学史诗。它,是一幅幅“袖珍式”的书法作品,带人穿越回2000多年前

        关键词:艺术博物馆;封泥;丞相;右丞相印;中国书法

        作者简介:

          它,是古代信函文书封缄的实物遗存,是秦人用泥土铸就的一部美学史诗。它,是一幅幅“袖珍式”的书法作品,带人穿越回2000多年前,感受秦小篆的无穷魅力。它,是继秦兵马俑、秦简牍之后,秦地下文物的又一重大发现,对中国历史的佐证与补充引得世人关注,是秦汉历史、地理研究及中国古代职官研究的一次重大发现。它就是现藏于西安中国书法艺术博物馆的秦封泥。

          一枚枚小小封泥,见证了那个辉煌强大的秦王朝的风风雨雨,直到2000多年后的今天,依然向世人诉说着大秦的故事。

          姓名:秦封泥

          年龄:2000多岁

          职称:国宝级

          户籍登记时间:1995年

          出生时间:战国

          现住址:西安中国书法艺术博物馆

          联系电话:(029)83503886

          1 秦封泥的西安故事

          1995年11月20日,西安市未央区六村堡乡相家巷村村民赵臣言,在位于汉长安城桂宫遗址东北角外侧的地里挖粪坑时,挖出了许多“带文字的泥坨坨”。

          赵臣言发现的“带文字的泥坨坨”是秦封泥的消息一经传开,立即引起文物考古界、书法篆刻界的震动。时任西安中国书法艺术博物馆馆长的傅嘉仪对这批封泥的情况非常关注,为使国家重要文物不致流失,西安中国书法艺术博物馆于1997年春接收了这批封泥中的700余枚精品。

          其后,西安市文物考古研究所、中国社会科学院考古研究所等,先后赴遗址所在地展开勘察与发掘。经初步整理研究,这些封泥被确认为秦代文物,对秦代历史文化研究具有重要的意义。

          为什么西安市未央区六村堡乡相家巷村可以发现这么多秦封泥呢?经专家考证,原来,西安市未央区六村堡乡相家巷村曾是秦甘泉宫所在。

          秦甘泉宫即“南宫”,秦始皇曾在这里处理政务。据《汉书·刑法志》载,秦始皇大约每天要看30公斤重的公文,所以在南宫遗址附近可以发现这么多封泥也就不足为奇了。

          这些小小的“带文字的泥坨坨”何以能够完好地保留到今天呢?秦文化研究会秦封泥专业委员会理事何全喜这样解释:“在文件启封后,封泥的使命就完成了,大量封泥会被当作办公垃圾处理掉。在焚烧办公垃圾的过程中,火的热量把封泥陶化了,因此这些‘带文字的泥坨坨’才得以留存至今?!?/font>

          “新中国成立以来,各地陆续出土了一些封泥,但像西安相家巷村这样集中、数量大、品相好,又有考古资料补充的发现,是前所未有的。就其中资料最为完整、最具代表性的秦封泥来看,它对于研究秦汉时期的职官、地理、文字、书法、印玺艺术等均有十分重要的意义:一是提供了丰富的史料,填补了秦史研究的空白;二是提供了秦汉印玺与封泥的断代标准;三是为书法篆刻艺术工作者、古文字研究者,提供了宝贵的实物资料?!备导我墙邮苊教宀煞檬闭庋?。

          2 秦汉时期最重要的保密手段

          在现代,重要的书信、文件多加盖印章以表明签署者的身份,并用胶水封口、骑缝签章等手段确保私密。那么,我国古代如何处理类似的情况呢?答案之一就是封泥。封泥类似于“火漆”,不过封泥的产生更为久远。

          对于早期的封泥来说,封物是其主要功能之一。根据出土文物可知,春秋战国至汉代的数百年间,封泥曾被广泛施于坛罐、竹笥,用于封存食物、钱币等。

          用于简牍封缄是封泥的另一主要用途。据考证,魏晋之前,公私文书的载体以竹木制成的简牍为主,不仅有关政治、军事的内容需要密封验证,个人信函也带有一定私密性质。因此,在传递过程中,为防止私拆,都需要封缄。

          封泥就此成为秦汉时期最重要的保密手段。收到信件的人如果看到封泥有被动过的痕迹,便可知该文件或已被人拆阅。封泥与公私文件都息息相关,可想它的使用数量之庞大。正因为如此,才有不少封泥经历2000多年的风风雨雨,还能留存到今天。

          2017年5月16日,西安中国书法艺术博物馆公布了“右丞相印”“上雒丞印”“栎阳丞印”3枚秦封泥学术研究重大成果。其中,“右丞相印”是代表秦代最高级别的孤品官印,当时盖有这枚官印的信件,是呈送秦始皇亲自过目的重要文件,包括李斯在内的多位秦丞相都可能使用过这枚印章。这枚“右丞相印”秦封泥,是陕西文物普查中陶质文物的最高成果之一,为国家一级文物。比起一般的秦封泥,这枚“右丞相印”封泥更大一些、字迹更完整。它直径2.5厘米,上面有清晰的秦小篆。这枚秦封泥被列入陕西省第一次可移动文物普查成果。

          3 泥土铸就的美学篇章

          秦封泥的发现,让中国社会科学院历史研究所研究员李学勤曾颇为感慨:“这次世纪末秦封泥的重大发现,可以与云梦秦简的发现媲美,是秦汉历史、考古工作者做梦都不敢想象的收获?!?/font>

          可以说,秦封泥是秦文书封缄制度的结晶,是秦人用泥土铸就的美学篇章?!罢馀胤饽?,第一次完整地勾画出秦官僚机构的网络图,系统地揭示了一批鲜为人知的都邑郡县及宫殿苑囿名称,是后人研究秦历史、地理演化的一部‘活字典’。同时,它还第一次准确地提供了为数可观的秦官印及其模式,是我们今天建构篆刻艺术的重要‘资料库’,并艺术地再现了秀丽挺拔的秦小篆,使之成为今人学习和临摹的范本?!蔽靼仓泄榉ㄒ帐醪┪锕菰莩?、秦文化研究会秦封泥专业委员会主任庞任隆说。

          秦封泥上的文字结构方正平整,是秦代官方推崇的规范的“雅化”风格,引导印文书法趋向平整方正的生动体现。秦封泥文字虽然是在特定的方寸之间排列组合而成的,但文字内容相近的封泥,在布局上则显示出丰富的变化。如“左丞相印”和“右丞相印”,印文虽然都处在“田字格”中,但是排列组合相反,前者从左至右顺时针旋读,后者从右至左竖读。在方形、两字的印文中,秦封泥文字的线条挺拔刚毅。其字结体修长、纤细、挺直且光滑,在延展、刚毅、坚定、明快中显示着顿挫的观感。尤其是纵横线条中若断若连的处理,正是含蓄风格的写照。在4字以内的秦封泥中,蜿蜒秀劲的线条风格更为突出。细看秦封泥,可以发现其中大部分为黄色,还有褐色、紫色、青色,给人以生命的活力和青春的气息之感。但是,随着时间的推移、空气的氧化,这些漂亮的颜色会慢慢褪去。

          “秦文化,博大精深;秦文明,源远流长。在以秦岭绵延横贯其中的三秦大地上,被誉为秦文化发展史上的秦兵马俑、秦简牍、秦封泥的三次重大发现,其中两大发现即秦兵马俑与秦封泥都在陕西,是陕西对中华文化的重大贡献?!迸尤温∪衔?,“秦兵马俑以秦人高大形象的原真性和秦代人物雕塑艺术的原真性的双重身份,见证了大秦帝国‘秦王扫六合’的雄心气魄和阵容,被誉为‘世界第八大奇?!?;而秦封泥,同样以秦代文字书法的原真性和秦代篆刻艺术的原真性的双重身份,见证了中国书法和中国篆刻在人类非物质文化遗产发展中的地位和作用,同时还原补充了秦代历史、地理的诸多空白?!?/font>

          目前,西安中国书法艺术博物馆共藏有781枚秦封泥。在首批申报国家等级文物鉴定的100枚封泥中,有5枚封泥被认定为国家一级文物,它们分别是“右丞相印”“廷尉之印”“四川太守”“少府”“西盐”。除此之外,还有“左丞相印”等15枚国家二级文物,“芷阳丞印”等57枚国家三级文物。

          记者 李向红 实习生 华艺婕

        作者简介

        姓名:李向红 华艺婕 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:张彦)
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