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         首页 >> 各地 >> 人文华中 >> 华中学人
        整合多学科研究长江文化 ——访江西师范大学党委副书记、历史学家张艳国
        2019年09月11日 16:18 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:明海英 字号
        关键词:长江文化;长江;中华文化;文化;黄河流域

        内容摘要:上古时代,兴起于黄河流域腹地的华夏文化发展得较早、较充分。中华文化是以华夏文化为主体,以周边蛮夷文化为依存和补充,互相影响、互相交流、相互激荡而发展的一种包容性极强的文化。长江文化是如何发展壮大的?

        关键词:长江文化;长江;中华文化;文化;黄河流域

        作者简介:

          上古时代,兴起于黄河流域腹地的华夏文化发展得较早、较充分。中华文化是以华夏文化为主体,以周边蛮夷文化为依存和补充,互相影响、互相交流、相互激荡而发展的一种包容性极强的文化。长江文化是如何发展壮大的?长江文化在近代怎样转型?围绕相关问题,记者采访了江西师范大学党委副书记、历史学家张艳国。

          《中国社会科学报》:请简要梳理长江文化发展壮大的历史。

          张艳国:中国古代的长江文化是一种生存于长江流域、地域性很强的文明形态,其早期以楚文化、吴越文化、巴蜀文化为代表,后来由于大一统的秦帝国建立,都被纳入中华文化发展的轨道。在此后较长时间内,黄河流域的文化一直处于引领性、辐射性的先进地位,成为中华文化的中心。相对而言,长江文化尚不可望黄河文化之项背。这就是学术界所说的“南北文化差异”。

          到东晋之际,文化发展出现了第一次大转折。由于黄河流域长期遭逢战乱,黄河文化圈开始向长江流域迁移,这就是学术界所说的“中华文化南进运动”。文化南进,为长江文化跃迁带来了历史的契机和难得的活力。从显性上看,精英文化随着世家大族南迁也有大的发展,以陶潜、徐陵、庾信、颜之推等人为代表,成为长江文化第一批耀眼的文化之光,与黄河流域的文化巨子何晏、阮籍、王弼、范晔等交相辉映。

          隋唐之际,长江流域的经济持续向前发展,至唐开国,南方经济至少已经赶上黄河流域。然而,文化中心尚在黄河流域,如唐兴科举,取士者北占其七,而南仅居其三。从文化的核心竞争力和文化软实力看,可谓是北方尽占风骚。安史之乱则再一次为长江文化发展提供了契机。经历安史之乱,黄河流域的经济、文化和宗族关系受到极大打击,统治者不得不把经营重点放在南方。长江流域经济发展的巨大成功,极大地助力了长江文化的发展。经过近两百年的发展,长江流域的经济实力超过北方,南方首次成为统治者的经济支柱,所谓“赋之所出,江淮居多”。随着长江流域经济持续发展,文化呈一时景象,而南方的政治、文化地位也得到提高。

          经历靖康之难,黄河文化再次受到严重损毁;宋室南渡,偏安江左,则进一步促进了长江文化发展。从此,在经济上长江流域取得了压倒黄河流域的优势。经济的超越必然带来文化的超越,自南宋中期始,宰相多出南人,进士以南人居十之九,状元庶几为南人矣。在明朝,“翰林多吉水,朝士半江西”“同门三进士,隔河两宰相”,长江文化灿如夏花,绚烂无比。

        作者简介

        姓名:明海英 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:张彦)
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