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         首页 >> 各地 >> 人文华东 >> 观点选萃
        张焮:中国研究有望成为时代显学
        2019年09月17日 11:05 来源:解放日报 作者:张焮 字号

        内容摘要:中国学呈现出文明交流超越文明隔阂、文明互鉴超越文明冲突、文明共存超越文明优越的新气象。

        关键词:

        作者简介:

          世界中国学论坛自2004年创办以来,其主论坛已经在黄浦江畔连续举办了八届。迄今为止,共有约2500人次的中外专家参加论坛,其中近半数为海外代表,覆盖全球90多个国家和地区。筚路蓝缕十五载,世界中国学论坛的成长史折射出新世纪以来中国学的发展历程。

          一是从边缘到中心。

          2004年,世界中国学论坛创办前夕,很多国家的专家学者尚不清楚中国研究为何物。一位美国知名学者甚至在第三届世界中国学论坛上还惊呼:“南美大国普遍找不到中国问题专家!”

          时至今日,伴随中国经济社会的快速发展及国际影响的日益彰显,世界各国的中国研究机构相继成立。2012年以来,巴西、阿根廷、南非、斯里兰卡等传统意义上中国研究“荒村”,一批重量级专家开始涉足中国议题,世界中国学论坛上也先后出现他们的身影。

          长期以来,美国是全球中国研究的中心,但在美国学术体制内部,中国研究大体作为区域研究的一部分,游走于各学科专业的边缘。美国权威“中国通”李侃如就曾感叹:中国研究对主流学术发展的贡献微乎其微。

          2008年后,这一状况得以改善。国际知识界发现西方主流理论在分析中国道路时解释力有限,一批扎根现实的中国研究开始对既有的学科理论提出挑战,成为主流学术界严肃对待的成果。从多项指标来看,中国研究已从边缘走向中心,中国学的影响力开始辐射主流学界,并有望成为一个时代的显学。

          二是从汉学到中国学。

          中国研究有汉学与中国学之分,前者聚焦古典中国,后者侧重当代中国。2004年前后,全球中国研究的版图上,只有美国完成了汉学到中国学的范式转换,欧洲和俄罗斯依然是传统汉学的天下。

          实际上,当时的汉学研究已处于风雨飘摇之中。例如,英国汉学重镇杜伦大学因财政紧张而关闭了东亚系,俄罗斯汉学因人才队伍的青黄不接陷入困境,但其传统地位依然难以撼动。第二届世界中国学论坛上,一位英国知名“中国通”反复强调自己研究的是汉学而不是中国学。第四届世界中国学论坛上,中国学贡献奖得主罗高寿介绍:俄罗斯当代中国研究的重镇——俄罗斯科学院远东研究所一大重心就是研究中国文明;整整10年,俄罗斯出版的当代中国研究专著和文集加起来不过70余本。由此可见,中国研究范式转换的艰辛。

          世界中国学论坛作为国内最早聚焦中国学的常设平台,创办之初就大力倡导当代中国研究、积极构建跨国界的中国学学术共同体,可谓开风气之先,并积十余年之功,才小有所成。从历届世界中国学论坛的发展变化中,可以看出中国研究范式转换的线索。例如,首届论坛上,中国学与汉学可谓各占半壁江山;2013年后,中国学逐渐成为主导。现在可以说,今日中国学已成为世界各国中国研究的主流。

          三是从“中国之中国”到“世界之中国”。

          2004年时,中国学成果大体是研究“中国之中国”,或聚焦中国国内问题,或围绕双边、多边关系展开。但近年来,一个明显的研究转向是聚焦“世界之中国”。此前聚焦中国国内问题的大批海外专家,开始以全球视野来分析中国发展的影响。

          这一转化和提升在世界中国学论坛上也有具体体现。前三届论坛上,大会演讲基本是“就中国论中国”;第四届论坛开始,“跳出中国看中国”以及中国的全球影响成为热词、关键词。

          2015年后,联结中国与世界的“一带一路”,更是成为中国学的研究重点。2018年,世界中国学论坛直接以“一带一路”为主题,在阿根廷举办拉美分论坛,引起学术界、舆论界的热烈反响。

          今年的第八届世界中国学论坛上,规模最大的专场就是“一带一路”上海论坛;其他政治、经济、文化和国际关系等圆桌会议,虽然不以“一带一路”为题,但在发言和讨论中也屡屡论及“一带一路”,足见“世界之中国”的勃兴。

          四是从西学东渐到文明互鉴。

          2004年时,不论是国内知识界还是海外学术界,都非常强调中华文明融入世界文明,中国应当学习、借鉴海外经验。例如,首届世界中国学论坛的主旨演讲中,就强调中国文化推崇“见贤思齐”,昭示了中国渴望向世界学习的态度。

          同期,海外学者也从域外经验出发,为中国发展积极建言献策。如有韩国学者提出,中国不能只是一个制造大国,还应当成为一个消费大国,在生产和消费之间达成平衡;俄罗斯科学院院士米亚什尼科夫以俄罗斯的历史教训为例,提醒中国注意避免经济高速发展中出现的劳动力人口减少等现象。

          进入新时代以来,一方面是继续学习世界先进文化,另一方面则开始有意识地为人类文明的发展贡献中国智慧。中国治国理政的启示、中国道路的世界意义等,受到出席世界中国学论坛的专家学者重点关注。如今年的第八届世界中国学论坛上,新加坡国立大学东亚研究所所长郝福满详细阐释了中国的减贫经验及其启示。

          种种迹象表明,中国不再只是西方理论检视的对象,而开始成为新理论孕育的场域。与之相呼应,中国学呈现出文明交流超越文明隔阂、文明互鉴超越文明冲突、文明共存超越文明优越的新气象。

          总之,中国的快速发展催生了中国研究热,加速了中国研究的范式转换。也正因如此,世界中国学论坛可以成长为文明交流互鉴的平台,顺时代潮流、发思想先声、促学术发展。

         ?。ㄗ髡叩ノ唬荷虾I缈圃褐泄а芯克?/font>

        作者简介

        姓名:张焮 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:张彦)
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